Watch an Immediate Skin to Skin Experience

Clinical Results of the Clever Medical Drape

Best Evidence: Benefits of Immediate Skin-to-Skin Contact

Evidence: Skin-to-skin contact mediates the neonatal stress response and promotes neonatal physiological regulation and stabilization.

  • Facilitates neonatal thermo-regulation;
  • Facilitates neonatal cardio-pulmonary stability;
  • Increases neonatal sleep organization;
  • Promotes earlier glucose regulation;
  • Facilitates greater relaxation and reduces crying;
  • Promotes analgesia during invasive procedures.

(Bergman & Bergman, 2013; Dabrowski, 2007; Ferber et al., 2004; Mercer et al., 2007; Moore et al., 2012; Takahashi et al., 2011)

Benefits of Immediate Skin-to-Skin Contact

Evidence: Skin-to-skin contact is associated with early initiation and longer duration of breastfeeding.

  • Breast milk is the optimal source of nutrition and source of natural immunity for the infant;
  • Increased ability of the neonate to recognize the mother’s milk;
  • A higher rate of successful initiation of breastfeeding;
  • A longer duration of breastfeeding;
  • Higher prevalence of timely neonatal metabolic/glucose regulation.

(Augustin et al., 2014; Carfoot et al., 2005; Moore et al., 2012)

Benefits of Immediate Skin-to-Skin Contact

Evidence: Skin-to-skin contact is associated with positive infant developmental and social benefits.

  • Increased maternal-infant interaction; maternal affection, facilitates bonding;
  • Greater tactile and verbal stimulation of the infant by the mother;
  • Vocal parental-infant interaction after birth;
  • Greater prevalence of future mother-infant attachment.

(Bystrova et al., 2009; Velandia et al., 2010)

Benefits of Immediate Skin-to-Skin Contact

Evidence: Multiple maternal benefits have been documented.

  • Release of oxytocin which facilitates control of bleeding in immediate post-partum period;
  • Increased reported maternal satisfaction and positive feelings;
  • Increased reported maternal feelings of relaxation and well-being;
  • Decreased reported maternal anxiety and stress;
  • Higher reported breastfeeding self-efficacy and overall confidence with breastfeeding;
  • Increased reported maternal sensitivity to the infant; increased maternal affection and attachment;
  • Fewer reported post-partum depressive symptoms.

(Aghdas, Talat & Sepideh, 2013; Bigelow, 2012; Carfoot et al., 2005; Dalbye, Calais, & Berg, 2011; Mercer et al., 2007; Moore, Anderson, Bergman, & Dowswell, 2012)


Aghdas, K., Talat, K., & Sepideh, B. (2013). Effect of immediate and continuous mother-infant skin-to-skin contact on breastfeeding self-efficacy of primiparous women: A randomised control trial. Women and Birth : Journal of the Australian College of Midwives, doi:10.1016/j.wombi.2013.09.004; 10.1016/j.wombi.2013.09.004

Augustin, A. L., Donovan, K., Lozano, E. A., Massucci, D. J., & Wohlgemuth, F. (2014). Still nursing at 6 months: A survey of breastfeeding mothers. MCN.the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 39(1), 50-55. doi:10.1097/01.NMC.0000437534.99514.dc; 10.1097/01.NMC.0000437534.99514.dc

Bergman, J., & Bergman, N. (2013). Whose choice? advocating birthing practices according to baby’s biological needs. The Journal of Perinatal Education, 22(1), 8-13. doi:10.1891/1058-1243.22.1.8; 10.1891/1058-1243.22.1.8

Bigelow, A., Power, M., MacLellan-Peters, J., Alex, M., & McDonald, C. (2012). Effect of mother/infant skin-to-skin contact on postpartum depressive symptoms and maternal physiological stress. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing : JOGNN / NAACOG, 41(3), 369-382. doi:10.1111/j.1552- 6909.2012.01350.x; 10.1111/j.1552-6909.2012.01350.x

Bystrova, K., Ivanova, V., Edhborg, M., Matthiesen, A. S., Ransjo-Arvidson, A. B., Mukhamedrakhimov, R., . . Widstrom, A. M. (2009). Early contact versus separation: Effects on mother-infant interaction one year later. Birth (Berkeley, Calif.), 36(2), 97-109. doi:10.1111/j.1523-536X.2009.00307.x; 10.1111/j.1523-536X.2009.00307.x

Carfoot, S., Williamson, P., & Dickson, R. (2005). A randomised controlled trial in the north of England examining the effects of skin-to-skin care on breast feeding. Midwifery, 21(1), 71-79. doi:10.1016/j.midw.2004.09.002

Dabrowski, G. A. (2007). Skin-to-skin contact: Giving birth back to mothers and babies. Nursing for Women’s Health, 11(1), 64-71. doi:10.1111/j.1751-486X.2007.00119.x

Dalbye, R., Calais, E., & Berg, M. (2011). Mothers’ experiences of skin-to-skin care of healthy full-term newborns–a phenomenology study. Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare : Official Journal of the Swedish Association of Midwives, 2(3), 107-111. doi:10.1016/j.srhc.2011.03.003; 10.1016/j.srhc.2011.03.003

Ferber, S. G., & Makhoul, I. R. (2004). The effect of skin-to-skin contact (kangaroo care) shortly after birth on the neurobehavioral responses of the term newborn: A randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics, 113(4), 858-865.

Gouchon, S., Gregori, D., Picotto, A., Patrucco, G., Nangeroni, M., & Di Giulio, P. (2010). Skin-to-skin contact after cesarean delivery: An experimental study. Nursing Research, 59(2), 78-84. doi:10.1097/NNR.0b013e3181d1a8bc; 10.1097/NNR.0b013e3181d1a8bc

Mercer, J. S., Erickson-Owens, D. A., Graves, B., & Haley, M. M. (2007). Evidence-based practices for the fetal to newborn transition. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, 52(3), 262-272. doi:10.1016/j.jmwh.2007.01.005

Moore, E. R., Anderson, G. C., Bergman, N., & Dowswell, T. (2012). Early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 5, CD003519. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003519.pub3; 10.1002/14651858.CD003519.pub3

Nolan, A., & Lawrence, C. (2009). A pilot study of a nursing intervention protocol to minimize maternal-infant separation after cesarean birth. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing : JOGNN / NAACOG, 38(4), 430-442. doi:10.1111/j.1552-6909.2009.01039.x; 10.1111/j.1552-6909.2009.01039.x

Prior, E., Santhakumaran, S., Gale, C., Philipps, L. H., Modi, N., & Hyde, M. J. (2012). Breastfeeding after cesarean delivery: A systematic review and meta-analysis of world literature. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 95(5), 1113-1135. doi:10.3945/ajcn.111.030254; 10.3945/ajcn.111.030254

Takahashi, Y., Tamakoshi, K., Matsushima, M., & Kawabe, T. (2011). Comparison of salivary cortisol, heart rate, and oxygen saturation between early skin-to-skin contact with different initiation and duration times in healthy, full-term infants. Early Human Development, 87(3), 151-157. doi:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2010.11.012; 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2010.11.012

Velandia, M., Matthisen, A. S., Uvnas-Moberg, K., & Nissen, E. (2010). Onset of vocal interaction between parents and newborns in skin-to-skin contact immediately after elective cesarean section. Birth (Berkeley, Calif.), 37(3), 192-201. doi:10.1111/j.1523-536X.2010.00406.x; 10.1111/j.1523-536X.2010.00406.x